A state of light

A state of light

Astronomy

A state of light

A state of light Discover a new state of light  Physicists have recently discovered a completely new state of light that does not follow one of the most basic laws of light physics and can transform human perceptions of electromagnetic radiation and lead to faster and safer optical communications.

new discoveries of light

Discovering a state of light, new  

Since light is an all-encompassing phenomenon that has been studied extensively, you might think you know everything about it. But scientists discovered a fundamental new property in light last year, and now a team of physicists at the University of Dublin has shown that light can take on a completely different form. One way to measure light beam is to use an angular momentum or rotational momentum, a constant quantity that calculates the amount of light rotation, and to date it has been assumed that in all light states the rotational momentum is an integer multiplied by Planck. ‌ A physical A state of light constant that estimates the magnitude of quantum effects.

But Trinity College physicists have now shown that there is a new form of light in which the constant rate of rotational momentum is half that known, a value that physicists have always assumed to be constant but has now changed. In other words, scientists have always thought that the amount of rotational momentum of light, that is, the amount of light that rotates as it moves, is a fixed number, but now they have found that in a different form of light, this number is not an integer.

To find out, the scientists passed light through crystals to give the light beams a complex, screw-like shape, and then studied the behavior of the new beams to see if the new shape could improve optical communication. . But when this light beam was studied in the form of the theory of quantum mechanics, the researchers found that its rotational momentum was halved, something they never expected to see.

This discovery is amazing in two ways, first, it introduces a whole new form of light. Also, since the 1980s, theoretical physicists have predicted that quantum mechanics would allow the existence of particles whose rotational momentum is lower than expected, and this prediction has now been proven. This new form of light can not only increase human understanding of the properties of light, but also increase the speed and safety of optical communications via optical fibers, leading to faster Internet connections.

Discovering the reason why the complexity of life stopped 3,000 million years ago

The cessation of the complexity of life occurred more than 3,000 million years ago, before the separate evolution of bacteria, eukaryotes, and ancient bacteria. Because all living things use the same code to produce protein from genetic information.

The reason for the cessation of the complexity of life in previous years, the discovery of the cessation of the complexity of life

All living things use the same code to produce protein from genetic information

A study by the Research Institute for Biomedicine in Barcelona (IRB Barcelona) offers an explanation for why the genetic code has stopped growing, a glossary used by organisms to translate genes into proteins. The cause is attributed to the structure of the transferable RNA – key molecules in the translation of genes into proteins. The genetic code is limited to 20 amino acids – the main building block of protein – and this is the maximum amount that prevents organized mutations that are lethal to life.

Nature is constantly evolving – its limitations are determined only by changes that threaten the viability of the species. Research into the origin and development of the genetic code is fundamental to explaining the evolution of life. In Science Advances, a team of biologists specializing in this field explains a limitation that, like a brake, prevents further development of the genetic code. This is a set of universal laws that all living things on Earth use to translate the genetic sequence of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) into amino acid sequences. Amino acids themselves form proteins that are responsible for cellular functions.

The study was led by researcher Luis Ribas Poplana of the IRB and was co-authored A state of light by Fyodor Kandrashu of the Geom Rule Center and Modetsu Orozco of the IRB. The team of scientists proved that the genetic code evolved to contain up to 20 amino acids and that it could not grow further. This is due to the limited function of transferable RNA-molecules that act as translators between the language of genes and proteins.

Discover the cessation of life, the cause of cessation of the complexity of life

The authors explain that the mechanism that translates genes into proteins is unable to detect more than 20 amino acids because they are mistaken for each other, which can lead to permanent mutations in proteins and thus incorrect translation of genetic information. Lead to “catastrophic consequences,” according to Ribas. He says that the synthesis (construction) of proteins based on genetic code is a definite feature of biological systems and that ensuring the faithful translation of information is essential.

The source of the genetic code saturation is in the transferable RNA, the molecules responsible for recognizing genetic information and the amino acid related to the ribosome, where the amino acid chain is converted to protein, following the information contained in a gene. Do coded. But the ribosome cavity in which the transport RNA is to be placed means that these molecules must take on an L-shape and there is very little change between them.

“It was in the interest of this system that new amino acids were made, because we actually use more than the 20 amino acids we have, but the extra amino acids are joined through very complex pathways,” explains Ribas. They are not attached to the genetic code and have reached a point where nature has not been able to produce new transferable RNAs that are sufficiently different from those that already existed and do not interfere with the correct identification of amino acids. “It happened when the number had reached 20 amino acids.”

One of the goals of artificial biology is to increase the genetic code and improve it to A state of light make proteins with more amino acids in order to achieve new functions. That’s why researchers use living organisms, such as bacteria, in perfectly controlled conditions to produce proteins with specific characteristics. “But this is very difficult to do, and our research shows that if we want to achieve more efficient biotechnology systems, we have to distinguish between synthetic RNAs designed in the laboratory and RNAs,” Ribas concludes. “We should avoid the existing transfer.”

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PS:
[1] In biology, an organism whose cells have a real nucleus and a membrane is called an eukaryote. A series of organisms whose cells do not have a true nucleus and a nuclear membrane.

[2] Archaea, also called archaea or ancient bacteria, are a series of protozoan micro-organisms. A state of light Ancient bacteria, like bacteria, are prokaryotes (primary or non-nucleated) and have no cell nucleus or other organelle within their cells.

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