Biography of Rene Link

Biography of Rene Link


Biography of Rene Link

Biography of Rene Link  Renee Link, inventor of the medical phone Familiarity with René Line, recognition of René Link inventor of the medical phone February 17 coincides with the birthday of French doctor René Lynck. He was born in 1781, and in 1816, while working at the French hospital of Necker, he invented the stethoscope (medical phone) and used it to examine the weakness of the chest. He became lecturer at the Collège de France in 1822 and became a professor of medicine in 1823. He also headed the medical clinic of the Hospital della Charité and was a professor at the Collège de France. Linek contracted tuberculosis in 1826 at the age of 45 and died.


Laineck was born in Camper, west of the French province of Brutin. When he was Biography of Rene Link  five or six years old, his mother died of tuberculosis and he was forced to live with a relative of his parents who was a priest. He moved to Nantes at the age of twelve to live with his uncle. His uncle, Guillaume François Linek, worked at the University of Nantes School of Medicine.

Linek was a gifted

Linek was a gifted student, he learned English and German and began learning medicine under his uncle. Shortly afterwards, his father, who was a lawyer, stopped him from pursuing medicine. So Lynch traveled to France for a long time, learning Greek and writing poetry. But in 1799 he turned to medical study again. He studied in Paris with famous doctors such as Dupuytren and Jean-Nicolas Corvisart. There he learned to use sounds as a way to help with diagnosis.

Corvisart advocated the re-establishment of the percussion method. Percussion is a method of diagnosing the disease by tapping on the skin, especially on areas of the body that have cavities, such as the abdomen and lungs.

The invention of the medical phone

Linek wrote a treatise published in August 1819. The introduction of this treatise states:

In 1816, I was consulted about the condition of a young woman suffering from the common symptoms of heart disease. In this case, the use of percussion and the use of the hand was useless due to obesity. Using the direct listening method was also not possible due to the age and gender of the patient, I accidentally recalled a simple and well-known fact in acoustics. When we nail a piece of wood, if we put our ears on the other side, we hear the clear sound of nails being driven. So I immediately rolled a bunch of paper into a cylinder and put one end on the patient’s heart and put my ear on the other, and I was very surprised to see that this way the heart rate was even better than when I straightened my ear. I put it on my chest, I hear.

Linek discovered that this medical phone is superior to the conventional method of placing the ear directly on the patient’s chest, especially if the patient is overweight. On the day of the discovery, he saw school children playing with long, hollow sticks. They Biography of Rene Link  put their ears on one side of the stick and scratched the other side with nails. The wood amplified and transmitted the sound of scratches. He called his wooden medical phone, made of wood, a stethoscope (status means breast and cupus means examination). But doctors did not welcome the invention. The New England Journal of Medicine reported the invention of the stethoscope two years later, and in 1821 a medical professor said, “One who has ears to hear must use his ears, not the stethoscope.” Shortly before his death, Linek gave his stethoscope to his nephew, calling it the greatest legacy of his life. Other medical achievements of Linkak are helping to understand peritonitis (peritonitis) and cirrhosis (inflammation of the liver). Although cirrhosis was known, Linek named it cirrhosis. He also coined the term melanoma and described the spread of melanoma to the lungs. In 1804, while still a medical student, Linek became the first person to speak about melanoma. The transcript of his speech was published in 1805. He also studied tuberculosis. Linek randomly used his stethoscope to diagnose his nephew with tuberculosis. Link has always been a supporter of objective scientific observations.

Biography of Baruch Spinoza, the famous Dutch philosopher

Baruch Spinoza, Biography of Baruch Spinoza, Biography of Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza, one of the greatest rationalist philosophers

Biography of Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza is one of the greatest rationalist philosophers of modern times. His dignity remained unknown long after his death, and he was slandered on charges of blasphemy and apostasy.

Russell describes him in the history of his philosophy: “Spinoza is the most honorable and beloved great philosopher. Others have surpassed him in intellectual power, but morally no one can match him. As a natural consequence of such morality, he was known as a verse of evil throughout his life and up to a century after his death. Spinoza was born a Jew, but the Jews excommunicated him. Christians hated him just as much. “Although the whole of his philosophy is permeated by the thought of God, some believers accused him of being ignorant of God.”

Baruch Spinoza was born in 1632 to a family of Portuguese Jews in Amsterdam. His family were Jews who had come to the Netherlands in search of freedom after the Inquisition. Baruch Spinoza was educated in a way that every child in the Jewish community learned, that is, learning the Hebrew language, the travels of Moses, the books of kings and prophets, and finally the Talmud. Spinoza continued his education because he wanted to become a rabbi.

Although Baruch Spinoza was raised in a closed Jewish community, he rebelled against traditionalism and was excommunicated by Jewish authorities at the age of 24. They wrote a curse letter to him and expelled him from the synagogue:
“Cursed be he during the day, and cursed be he at night; Curse him when he sleeps, and curse him when he wakes up; Curse him when he goes out, curse him when he comes in; May the Lord not forgive him; May the flame of the Lord’s wrath be poured out on this man; And let the Lord blot out his name from under the heavens, and let his Lord separate him from all the tribes of Israel until all destruction, with all the curses of heaven which are written in the book of the law; But you who believe in God Almighty, all of you be steadfast!

“We order that no one should speak to him, neither in language nor in writing, should Biography of Rene Link  not pay attention to him, should not be under the same roof with him, should not be in his four arms, and should not read any writing from him.”

After this expulsion

After this expulsion, Spinoza wrote a defense to the largest synagogue in which he defended his true belief in religion. The text of this treatise has not been left.

Biography of Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Biography of Baruch Spinoza

“Spinoza’s philosophy is the philosophy of salvation through the knowledge of God

Baruch Spinoza was a reclusive and isolationist figure. Sometimes he did not leave his house for three months. He even refused to accept the position of professor at the University of Heidelberg and spent his time shaving lenses for glasses, microscopes and telescopes. Inhalation of round glass caused lung discomfort and led to his death at the age of 44.

By all accounts, Baruch Spinoza is a book called “Ethics” in which he discusses everything Biography of Rene Link  in the manner of Euclidean geometry. This book is often considered a great example of a self-sufficient philosophical system that aims to explain everything.

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