Darwin World Day
Darwin World Day February 12; Darwin World Day Darwin, World Darwin Day, February 12 Darwin World Day February 12 is named Darwin World Day
23 February (12 February); Darwin World Day
Darwin Day, or Darwin World Day, is a newly established celebration of Charles Darwin’s birthday, February 12, 1809. On this day, programs are held by various institutions to commemorate Darwin’s prominent role in science and to promote science in general.
Who is Charles Robert Darwin?
Charles Robert Darwin (February 12, 1809 – April 19, 1882) was a British biologist and theorist of evolution. Among his works is the origin of species or the “origin of species” (1859) and human descent, and natural Darwin World Day selection in relation to sex (1871). He was a member of the Royal Society of Britain. Charles Robert Darwin’s book, The Full Origin of Species by Natural Selection, is considered one of the most important books in the world.
From childhood to Darwin University
Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, into a wealthy medical family in Shrewsbury, Shrewsbury, England. He was the fifth of six children in the family. His father, Robert Darwin, and his mother, Susanna Wajwood, were both from a genuine English Christian Christian family.
His mother died when Darwin was eight years old. A year later, he was sent to a boarding school in a neighboring town. In 1825, after a year of apprenticeship with his father, he went to the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. But the violence of the surgery made him disgusted with medicine and instead learn taxidermy from a freed black slave named John Edmonston. Darwin was fascinated by the stories Edmonsten told of the rainforests of South America.
Biography of Darwin, Darwin World Day, February 12 Darwin World Day
Charles Darwin is a British biologist who developed the theory of evolution
Darwin voyage by Beagle
Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle took five years. Darwin spent most of this time conducting geological surveys, studying fossils, and studying living organisms. He collected thousands of specimens of living organisms in South America, many of which were previously unknown to Western scientists. All of this, in addition to the detailed notes that Darwin made of his observations, was widely used in his theories of the future.
Scientific achievements before the theory of evolution
Throughout the voyage, Darwin always had the support of his former master. Hanslow arranged for Darwin’s writings to be published and provided the collected fossils to reputable biologists; When Beagle returned Darwin World Day to Britain on October 2, 1836, Darwin became famous among scientists. After visiting home and meeting his father, he traveled to London to gather a group of top biologists to study the plant, animal, and geological specimens collected. Hanslow introduced Darwin to the famous biologist Richard Owen.
When Owen worked on Darwin’s collection of fossils at the Royal College of Surgeons, he was surprised to find that it belonged to an extinct species of giant, lazy rodent. This discovery further increased Darwin’s credibility.
On February 17, 1837, Lyle devoted his speech as president of the Geological Society to Richard Owen’s findings on the Darwin fossil complex, with the idea that extinct species are related to current species in the same area. At the same meeting, Darwin was elected a member of the Council of the Geological Society.
Writing a book on the geology of South America and writing the multi-volume Beagle Zoology were other projects in which Darwin participated. Darwin’s intense scientific pursuits continued until mid-1837. At this time, on the advice of doctors, he was relieved of the pressure of work and stayed in the summer to rest. This one-year leave was a good opportunity for him to focus more and more on his favorite subject, research on the theory of evolution.
The emergence of the theory of evolution
Darwin did not initially try to challenge the species stability hypothesis, but continued research left many unanswered questions. A year before the voyage began, a controversial book by Charles Lyle was published, The Principles of Geology, of which Darwin had a copy. The author claimed in this book that the earth’s surface changes due to gradual processes and that the transformation of the earth’s crust is a uniform flow in nature throughout the history of the planet.
He explains that every living thing first grows in the center and spreads from that point, and showed that it lasted for a while until it gradually disappeared and gave way to other species, calling it the origin of the centers of creation. Hence, he concluded that the emergence of new species is a continuous and uniform flow throughout the history of the earth. These theories, which were completely contrary to the common beliefs of the time, caused a great deal of controversy in scientific circles. By examining rock layers and fossils at various points, Darwin found ample evidence to support Lyle’s theories.
In the Galapagos Islands, he found fossils very close but not exactly identical to living figures. He observed that the turtles inhabiting each island were slightly different from the turtles on the adjacent island and that the finches of the different islands were slightly different. For Darwin, the best explanation was that species change and members of any ancestor have something in common.
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Darwin’s works include the origins of human species and lineage and natural selection in relation to gender.
Forty years earlier, a scientist named Thomas Malthus had argued in a Darwin World Day article that the human population was growing faster than food production and that if the human population was not controlled in some way, there would not be enough food for everyone for decades, and man would have to fight to get it.
Darwin found that the teachings of Malthus complemented his theories. He concluded that after changes in living organisms, species that are incompatible with the natural environment are eliminated and replaced by species whose changes have made them more compatible with the natural environment. Darwin called this phenomenon natural selection.
From 1836 to 1858, Darwin worked secretly and in his spare time on his revolutionary theory. He was convinced of the evolution of living things but feared being accused of blasphemy by being made public by extremist groups. Knowing the controversy that arose in society and in scientific circles with the introduction of his theory, he tried to provide sufficient scientific evidence for his theory by conducting numerous experiments on plants and animals and using the experiences of pigeon and pig breeders.
Darwin and the theory of evolution
Darwin’s research was slow. In 1842 he wrote a summary of his theory, and in 1844 he wrote a 240-page treatise on natural selection. Despite the insistence of friends, Darwin remained reluctant to disseminate his views widely, sharing the results of his research only with some of his close associates, such as Charles Lyle and Joseph Dalton Hooker; But receiving a letter in June 1858 forced Darwin to put aside his doubts.
The author of the letter was a young biologist named Alfred Russell Wallace, who worked in Borneo. He had reached the same ideas as Darwin about evolution. Within two weeks, Darwin prepared an article and, with Wallace’s article, sent it to the Linnean Scientific Society of London. His friends arranged for both papers to be submitted together, but with Darwin World Day evidence that Darwin was right. Encouraged by the awareness of competition, Darwin began writing a book entitled “On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection or the Survival of the Right Race in the Struggle for Survival.” In this book, later known as the “Beginning of Species,” he sought to explain the theory of evolution by natural selection and to provide scientific evidence for it.