Explorer Parker – Finally, after several delays, the Parker probe was launched at 7:31 a.m. GMT or 3:31 a.m. local time on Cape Canaveral on August 12, 2018, aboard a Delta 4 rocket. This probe is going to meet the sun of our system at a speed of about 720,000 kilometers per hour from a very, very close distance; So close that Parker Project researchers say Parker is supposed to touch the sun. Parker actually briefly enters the Sun’s atmosphere, known as the Corona, and then exits it. Of course, this probe will not be alone in its mission to explore the sun, and in less than six months, a European probe in the suburbs of the sun will join it. But what exactly does Parker have, and what does he look for in the sun’s backyard? There are many secrets behind the scorching flames of the sun. Many secrets that astronomers have been trying to unravel for years; Why is the Sun’s corona far warmer than its surface, or how exactly do the sun’s winds form? The first scientific paper he published at the time on solar radiation referred to solar winds; A stream of charged particles (plasma) that have energy emitted from the sun into space in all directions.
Parker’s theory had many proponents and opponents at the time, yet no one was able to challenge his calculations. Until, a little over a decade later, his theory was confirmed by the findings of the Mariner 2 probe. The confirmation of the solar wind theory was in itself a prelude to the widespread questioning of solar activity; Questions that many remain unanswered. Finding the answers to these questions will not only unravel many of the mysteries of astronomy but also help us better protect ourselves from the destructive effects of solar storms. When solar winds strike the earth, they can disrupt or Even destruction of electronic technologies. Without an early warning system, solar storms could potentially cause more than $ 2 trillion in damage in the United States alone, according to a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences. The damage to the United States in such a situation could be so great that all of the east coasts of the United States were without electricity for more than a year. The situation in Europe, Asia and other parts of the world is no less. Although such catastrophic solar storms usually occur only once every few hundred years, small solar storms do occur frequently. In March 1989, for example, a small solar storm severely damaged a Hadro Quebec transformer in Canada. Also in 2003, a series of solar storms caused scattered faults in more than half of NASA’s satellite fleet.
A historical need – Explorer Parker
Although we need to study the sun more than ever these days, the tendency to study more broadly in this area dates back to the nineteenth century. In 1869, astronomers from around the world gathered in Russia and North America to observe a total solar eclipse. At that time they managed to see something that is not seen under normal circumstances; What we now call the crown of the sun or the corona. The outermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere, which many astronomers were curious to know more about. They knew very well that different chemical elements emit light at different wavelengths when they burn. In this way, they could identify the constituent elements of the corona by measuring the wavelength of these spectral lines. Both of them – working independently – in their studies were able to identify the green spectral line with a wavelength of 530 nm. This finding surprised many researchers at the time because the spectrum of none of the known chemical elements at that time did not fit at such a wavelength, so astronomers thought they had discovered a new substance and named it coronium.
It was later discovered that Yang and Harkens were wrong, but it took scientists until the third decade of the twentieth century to understand why they were wrong. Two physicist astronomers, Walter Grotrian and Bengt Edlén, found in their experiments that iron could emit green light on its own, but only if it was exposed to temperatures above three million degrees Celsius. Warm-up. When this issue became clear, the main puzzle was born. What exactly brings the temperature of the Sun’s corona to more than three million degrees Celsius? But where was the important question? The main problem was that according to the laws of physics and the discoveries of astrophysicists, the surface temperature of the sun is about six thousand degrees Celsius. If you consider a hot spring; It is as if the farther away the water is from its source of heat, the hotter it becomes instead of getting colder. “The big question is, what exactly is happening in this range when the temperature is rapidly and suddenly rising to more than three million degrees,” said Nicola Fox, a scientist who designed the Parker mission at Johns Hopkins University Physics Laboratory. “Will Celsius rise?”
This is the main question that Parker must answer. But if you do not think this question is big enough, Parker is going to answer other questions. For example, it is reasonable to expect the sun to cling to all of its constituents with both hands due to its high gravitational mass. However, we see that plasma is easily separated from the sun and propagated to the planets of the solar system; What we call the solar wind, and we said it shortly before the dangers. Solar winds are generally made up of particles ejected from the sun (mainly hydrogen and helium crowns), and the iron that unraveled the sun’s riddle is only a very small part of their composition. Solar winds, which also carry the power of the sun’s magnetic field, propagate at speeds of more than 1,600 kilometers per hour.