 # Gravity on the planets

### Gravity on the planets

Gravity on the planets-Gravity is a fundamental force in physics. Living on the surface of the earth has accustomed us to 1g or (9.8 m / s²) traction. After all, for those who have gone into space or stepped on the moon, gravity is something variable and valuable.

Gravity depends on mass – so that all objects, from stars, planets, and galaxies, to light and subatomic particles – are attracted to each other and have the force of gravity. Depending on the mass, size, and density of an object, its gravitational force works differently. When we reach planets in our solar system that are different in size and mass, their gravitational magnitude varies considerably.

Gravity on the planets-For example, the gravity on Earth, as mentioned earlier, is equal to ٫9.80665 or (32.174 ft / s²), which means that if an object is dropped from the ground and falls, it will freeze 9 per second. ش Accelerates 8 meters to the ground. This is the standard for measuring gravity on other planets, also denoted by g. According to Newton’s universal law of gravity, the force of gravity between two objects can be mathematically (F = G) m¹m² / r² where F is the force, m¹, and m² of the mass of two objects, r is the distance between two centers of objects and G is the gravitational constant. (11.10 × 6.674 N m2 / kg2) Depending on their size and mass, gravity on another planet is measured in g, as well as the amount of acceleration in free fall.

Gravity on Mercury

With an average radius of 2440 km and a mass equivalent to 3.30 × 23 ^ 10 kg, Mercury is approximately 0.383 times the size of Earth and has only 0.055 times the mass of Earth. This makes Mercury the smallest and lightest planet in the solar system. Thanks to its high density of 5.427 g / cm3, which is only slightly less than the Earth’s density of 5.514 g / cm3 – Mercury has a surface gravity of 3.7 m / s² or 0.38 g.

Gravity on the planets-Venus Gravity

Venus is similar to Earth in many ways. And that is why they are also called the twins of the earth. With an average radius of 4,6023 × 108 km, a mass of 4,867 ٫ 24 ^ 10 kg, and a density of 5,243 g / cm3, Venus is the size equivalent to 0.9499 Earth, 0.815 times the mass and approximately 0.95 denser From the ground. It is therefore not surprising that the gravity on Venus is very close to Earth at 8.87 m / s2 or 0.904 g.
The gravity of the Moon
The moon is an astronomical body in which humanity has been able to study the effects of reduced gravity on humans. Calculations based on a radius of 1,737 km, a mass of 7,3477 × 22 ^ 10 kg, and a density of 3,3464 g / cm³, as well as missions performed by Apollo astronauts, bring the surface gravity to 1.62 m / s² per month or Have shown 0.1654 g.

Gravity on Mars

Mars is similar to Earth in many key respects. When we look at its size, mass, and density, Mars is small compared to Earth. In fact, its average radius is 3389 km, which is approximately 0.53 times that of Earth. It’s mass (6,4171 × 23 ^ 10 kg) is only 0.107 times that of the Earth and its density is close to 0.71 times that of the Earth, which is equivalent to 3.93 g / cm³. That is why Mars has 0.38 times the Earth’s gravity, which is close to 3.711 m / s².

Jupiter Gravity

Jupiter is the largest and heaviest planet in the solar system. Its average radius is about 69,911.6 km, which makes the planet 10.97 times larger than Earth; Its mass (1,898,27 ^ 10. 10 kg) is about 317.8 times that of Earth. Jupiter is a gas giant, so it naturally has a lower density than Earth and other rocky planets, at about 1,326 g / cm ³. As a gas giant, Jupiter does not have a stable surface and difficulty. If one stands on it, one can easily fall to reach its solid core (theoretically, of course). Finally, Jupiter’s surface gravity (something above its cloud surface) is 24.79 m / s² or 2,528 g.

Gravity on the planets-Saturn Gravity

Like Jupiter, Saturn is a gas giant that is significantly larger and heavier than Earth but still less dense. In short, Saturn has an average radius of 58,232.6 km, the planet is 9.13 times Earth, weighs 5.6846, 26.10 kg, 95.15 times heavier than Earth, and has a density of 0.687 g / cm. has it. As a result, it’s surface gravity (which, like Jupiter above its clouds) is only slightly higher than that of the earth, 10.44 m / s² or 1,065 g.
Uranus Gravity
With an average radius of 25,360 km and a mass of 8.68 × 25 ^ 10 kg, Uranus is almost 4 times larger than Earth and 14,536 heavier. However, as a gas giant, its density (1.27 g / cm ³) is significantly lower than that of Earth. Thus, its surface gravity (measured above the surface of its clouds) is only slightly weaker than that of the Earth at 8.69 m / s² (or 0.886 g).

Neptune Gravity

Neptune is the fourth-largest planet in the solar system, with an average radius of 24,622 ± 19 km and a mass of 1,0243 × 26 ^ 10 kg. Neptune is 3.86 times larger and 17 times heavier than Earth. But as a gas giant, it has a density as low as 1,638 g / cm³. All of this results in a surface gravity of 11.15 m / s² (or 1.14 g), which is again measured from above the planet’s clouds.

Most importantly, gravity has a wide range in the planets of the solar system. From 0.38 g on Mercury to 2.528 g above Jupiter clouds. On the moon, where the astronauts traveled, there is a very weak gravity equivalent to 0.1654 g, which allows us to have interesting experiences at low gravity! Knowing the effects of low gravity is essential for space travel, especially for long-haul orbits and the International Space Station (ISS). In the coming decades, knowing how to simulate this situation when we want to start sending astronauts into space for long missions; can be very useful. In fact, knowing how strong gravity is on other planets can be essential to completing missions or even staying there. Humanity is accustomed to a surface with a gravity of 1g, so knowing that conditions on other planets that sometimes have a fraction of this gravity can be a distance between death or life for us!

More than 6,000 light-years from Earth, a fast-spinning neutron star called the Black Widow Tapakhtar cast a storm of radiation on its accompanying brown dwarf star as it orbits for nine hours. You who stand on our planet may think that you are just watching this barbaric fin. But in reality, both stars are pulling you towards them. And you kill them, and you are connected by gravity over trillions of kilometers.

The gravity of the deadly force between two bodies has mass – both bodies have mass. That is, everything in the universe absorbs everything else: all the stars, black holes, humans, smartphones, and atoms are constantly pulling each other. So why not feel drawn to the billions? Two reasons: mass and distance.

Gravity on the planets-The basic equation for gravitational force between two things was written in 1687 by Isaac Newton. Scientists’ understanding of gravity has evolved since then, but Newton’s universal law of gravitation still responds well in most situations. Here’s: The force of gravity between two objects is equal to the mass of one multiplied by the mass of the other multiplied by a very small number called the gravity constant, and divided by the distance between two objects to the power of two If you double the mass of one, the force between them doubles. If you double the distance between them, the force between them becomes a quarter.

The force of gravity between you and the earth pulls you toward its center, the force you experience with your weight. Suppose this force is approximately 800 Newtons when standing at sea level. If you travel to the Dead Sea, the force increases by a fraction of a percentage. And if you go to the summit of Mount Everest, the force is reduced – but still, to a very small extent.

The higher you go, the less gravity you have, but you can’t escape it. Gravity is created by a change in the curvature of space-time – three dimensions of space plus time – that bend around any object that has mass. Earth’s gravity enters the International Space Station, which is located 400 km above the Earth, with almost the main intensity. If the space station were standing on a giant pillar, you would still feel ninety percent of the gravitational pull of the earth’s surface. Astronauts experience weightlessness because the space station is constantly falling to the ground. Fortunately, it spins around the planet fast enough to never collide with it.

When you reach the surface of the moon, about 400,000 kilometers away, the Earth’s gravitational pull will be less than 0.03% of what you feel on Earth. The only gravity you know will be the gravity of the moon, which is about one-sixth that of Earth. You still go farther and the gravity of the earth will be less than you, but it will never reach zero.

Even though we are securely attached to the earth, we are still the target of pulling distant celestial bodies and near terrestrial objects. The sun gives you a force of about half a newton. If you are a few meters away from your smartphone, you will experience cross-traction equal to a few icons. This is roughly equivalent to the gravitational pull between you and the Andromeda Galaxy, which is 2.5 million light-years away but has a trillion times the mass of the Sun.

But when it comes to escaping gravity, there is an escape route. If all the masses around us are constantly pulling us, how does the Earth’s gravity change if you dig a deep tunnel in the ground, assuming you are neither cooked nor crushed? If you empty the center of perfectly spherical earth – which it is not but assume it is – you will experience the same tension in all directions. And you will be suspended and weightless, and only the slightest stretches of other celestial bodies will enter you. So in such a mental experience, you can escape the gravity of the earth – but you have to head for it.