Journey to Venus
Journey to Venus – The hottest planet in the solar system, though not closer to the sun than Mercury; But it has earned this title due to its strong greenhouse escape effect. Venus is the second planet in the solar system. The planet has many features in common with Earth, which is why it is called Earth’s sister. For example, both planets are within the habitable zone of the solar system. In addition, both are rocky objects, and much of them are made of metal and silicate. But this planet, despite its calm appearance, is very turbulent and restless. Venus has the densest atmosphere among the planets in the solar system, 96% of which is carbon. The pressure on the surface of Venus is 92 times the pressure on the surface of the earth. Such pressure exists only at a depth of 900 meters above the Earth’s seas. Despite Mercury being closer to the Sun, Venus is the hottest known planet in the solar system, with an average surface temperature of 465 degrees Celsius. Venus is covered with a thick layer of sulfuric acid reflective clouds. Clouds block sunlight from reaching the planet’s surface and reflect light. The intense reflection of sunlight is the main reason why Venus shines brightly in the night sky and is visible to the naked eye. Venus may have had blue oceans in the past, but all of the oceans have evaporated due to rising temperatures and severe greenhouse effects. The surface of Venus is dry and full of plate-like rocks and volcanic activity.
Venus – Journey to Venus
One year on Venus equals 224.7 Earth days; But Venus is moving slowly around it, which is why it is the longest day among the planets in our solar system. One day of Venus is equal to 243 Earth days (longer than a year). Unlike other planets, Venus rotates clockwise around its axis. This means that the sun rises in the west of Venus and sets in the east. Also, the second planet in our solar system has no moon.
What lessons does the hell of Venus have for the earth?
Venus, as the brightest object in the night sky, has played a significant role in human culture since ancient times. The planet is the holy god of many cultures and has inspired many writers and poets with titles such as Morning Star or Evening Star. Another name for this planet is Venus, which is derived from the Roman god of love and beauty. In the second millennium BC, Venus’s movements were first depicted in the night sky. Venus has been the target of interplanetary exploration many times due to its short distance from the Sun.
Formation – Journey to Venus
Despite much of the information that has come from the planets of the solar system in recent years, there are still doubts about how they formed. Currently, there are two main theories about how planets form. The first and most plausible theory is the theory of nuclear aggregation, which is compatible with rocky planets such as Venus; But it is not very responsive to gas giants. The second theory is the theory of disk instability, which is more suitable for gas giants.
Theory of nuclear aggregation
Based on the core accretion model, the rocky nuclei of the planets were first formed; The lighter elements then formed the mantle and crust of the planets. In rocky worlds, other lighter elements formed the atmosphere. By studying extraterrestrial planets (outside the solar system), the theory of nuclear aggregation can be considered the dominant formation theory. Stars with more metal in their nuclei (a term used by astronomers for elements other than hydrogen and helium) have larger planets in their system than stars made of metal alone.
Physical properties and composition
Because the size, mass, density, and composition of Venus and Earth are almost equal, these two planets are called twins or sisters. Venus is 12103.6 km in diameter and only 638.4 km shorter than Earth. However, the similarities end here. Venus is not the closest planet to the Sun, but because of its dense atmosphere and its ability to dissipate heat and the greenhouse effect (a situation in which the greenhouse effect intensifies due to positive feedback between surface temperature and atmosphere) and the ocean swells. Is the hottest planet in the solar system. As a result, the temperature on the surface of Venus even reaches 465 degrees Celsius, which easily melts lead. The probes, which had previously landed on the surface of Venus, lasted only a few hours.
Venus’ internal structure is probably similar to that of Earth. Venus, like Earth, is a rocky planet made of rock and metal, possibly with a molten metal core, a rocky mantle, and a crust. Because Venus is slightly smaller than Earth, the pressure at its depths is 24% lower than the pressure at the depths of the Earth. The main difference between the two planets is the absence of tectonic plates on the surface of Venus. The inner structure of Venus, the outer layer shell, the mantle (middle layer), and the core (inner yellow layer)
Geographical conditions, mountains, and volcanoes
The surface of Venus has been the subject of many studies by planetary scientists in the twentieth century. Venus Surfaces In 1975 and 1982, they sent images of angled rocks and surface sediments of Venus. Venus’s surface was mapped by the Magellan Probe in 1990 and 1991. The surface of Venus shows evidence of volcanic activity, and the sulfur in the atmosphere may be the product of these activities.6 Mountainous areas make up one-third of the surface of Venus. The area of one of the famous areas of Maxwell is about 870 km and its mountains reach a height of 11.3 km, which are the highest mountains on the planet. Venus also has unique features that are not found on earth. Venus, for example, has a crown (ring-like structures that are 155 to 580 km wide). According to scientists, these crowns are formed by rising hot materials under the shell. Venus also has mosaic areas in which various catchments and valleys are formed.
Venus’s surface temperature melts lead easily
Most of the surface of Venus is formed by volcanic activity. Venus has seven times the number of volcanoes on Earth. Although there are a total of 1,600 volcanoes on the surface of Venus, they do not appear to be active. Venus has a total of 167 large volcanoes that are more than 100 kilometers wide. The probe also discovered collision holes on the surface of Venus, which, of course, were very small; Because volcanic lava covered them. Almost a thousand impact holes have been discovered on Venus that is evenly distributed. On other planets, such as Earth and the Moon, the cavities erode and collapse. For example, the craters of the moon collapsed due to subsequent collisions, while the erosion of the earth’s cavities was caused by water and wind. About 85% of the cavities of Venus are in normal conditions. Although the Earth’s crust is constantly moving, there is no such process on Venus. The diameter of Venus’s impact holes varies from 3 to 280 km.