Jupiter’s moons – Jupiter was named by the Romans after the king of the gods. In addition to being the largest planet in our solar system – with a mass about two and a half times the combined mass of all other planets – it has the largest moon of any solar planet. So far, 67 orbits of this gas giant have been discovered, and maybe even more. Jupiter’s moons are so numerous and diverse that we divide them into several groups. First, the largest moons, known as the Galilean or main group. Together with the smaller inner group, they form Jupiter’s regular moons. Beyond them, there are many irregular moons orbiting the planet with its rings. Here’s what we know…
Discover and name
Using a telescope designed with a magnification of 20 X, Galileo Galilei was able to make the first observations of celestial bodies that could not be seen with the naked eye. In 1610, he made the first recorded discovery of Jupiter’s orbiting moons, later known as the Galilean moons. At the time, he observed only three objects that he believed were supposed to be fixed stars. However, between January and March 1610, he continued to observe them and pointed to a fourth object. At that time, he realized that these four objects did not behave like fixed stars and were in fact objects that They spun around the customer. These discoveries proved the importance of using a telescope to observe celestial bodies that had not been seen before. More importantly, by showing that planets other than Earth have their own orbital and lunar systems, Galileo dealt a significant blow to the widely accepted Ptolemaic model of the universe.
Characteristics of Jupiter’s moons
An image of Galileo Galilei was taken by Gusto Sastermans in 1636. In support of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo de ‘Medici, Galileo initially sought permission to name the moons “CosmicaSidera”. At Cosimo’s suggestion, Galileo changed his name to MediceaSidera in honor of the Medici family. The discovery was announced in Sidereus Nuncius, published in Venice in March 1610. However, the German astronomer Simon Marius had independently discovered the moons at the same time as Galileo. At the behest of Johannes Kepler, he named the moons lovers of Zeus (Greek equivalent of Jupiter). In his treatise Mundus Jovialis (The Customer World, published in 1614), he named them Iowa, Europe, Ganymede, and Callisto. Galileo patiently refused to use the name Marius and instead invented a numbering scheme that is still used alongside the names of the moons. According to this plan, the moons were assigned numbers based on their proximity to their mother planet, and this number increased with increasing distance. Hence, the moon Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto were named Jupiter I, II, III, and IV, respectively.
The closest moon to Jupiter
Jupiter’s painting, painted on November 1, 1880, by French artist and astronomer Etienne Trolls, depicts the passing of the moon’s shadows and the large red spot. After Galileo made the first recorded discovery of the original group, almost No extra moons were discovered for three centuries – not until E. Barnard discovered the moon, Amalia, in 1892. In fact, this discovery was not made until the 20th century, and with the help of telescopic photography and other improvements, many of Jupiter’s moons were discovered. The Himalayas were discovered in 1904, Alara in 1905, Pasiphae in 1908, Sinop in 1914, Lycia and Carm in 1938, Ananke in 1951, and Leda in 1974. When the Voyager spacecraft approached Jupiter in 1979, 13 moons were discovered, while Voyager himself discovered three more moons, Metis, Adrestia, and Tibet. Between October 1999 and February 2003, researchers used They found and named 34 other sensitive ground-based detectors, most of which were discovered by Scott S. Shepard and David C. Joyce. Another 16 moons have been discovered since 2003, but have not yet been named, bringing the total number of known Jupiter moons to 67. Although Galileo’s moons were named shortly after their discovery in 1610; The names Ivo, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto were not used until the 20th century. Amalia (aka Jupiter V) was not named until an informal convention was reached in 1892, the name first used by French astronomer Camille Flammarion.
Jupiter and its large moons
Other moons, in most astronomical literature, were simply labeled with their Latin numerals (e.g., Jupiter IX) until the 1970s. The project began in 1975 when the International Astronomical Union (IAU) task force named the outer solar system V-XIII moons, creating an official naming process for each future moon. Were. This was to name the newly discovered moons of lovers of Jupiter and the god Jupiter (Zeus); And since 2004, their children’s names have also been used.
Jupiter’s regular moons are named because they have planetary orbits – meaning they rotate in the same direction as their planet. These circuits are almost circular and slightly inclined downwards, meaning that they rotate close to Jupiter’s equator. Of these, the Galilean moons (aka the main group) are the largest and most well-known. , Revolve around the planet. They are also among the largest objects in the solar system other than the sun and eight planets, with a radius larger than that of dwarf planets. They include Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, all discovered by Galileo and named after him. The moons, derived from the lovers of Zeus in Greek mythology, were named shortly after the discovery of Galileo by Simon Marius in 1610. Hence, Io’s inner moon is named after a priest, Hera, who loved Zeus.
With a diameter of 3642 km, Io is the fourth-largest moon in the solar system. With more than 400 active volcanoes, it is the most geologically active in the solar system. Its surface is filled with more than 100 mountains, some of which are higher than Mount Everest. Unlike many moons in the outer part of the solar system (which is covered with ice), Io is mainly composed of silicate rock that is stretched around an iron core or molten sulfide iron. Iowa has a very thin atmosphere, composed mainly of sulfur dioxide (SO2). It is the second Galilean moon in Europe, named after the legendary Phoenician aristocrat who was welcomed by Zeus and became queen of Crete. At 3121.6 km in diameter, it is the smallest Galilean moon and slightly smaller than the Earth’s moon. The surface of Europe consists of a layer of water around the mantle that is thought to be 100 km thick. The upper part of the ice is solid, while the lower part is believed to be liquid water, which is heated by thermal energy and tidal processes. If true, then extraterrestrial life could exist in this subsurface ocean, perhaps near a series of hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean.