Planet Mercury – Mercury, known in English as Mercury, is the smallest planet in the solar system and the closest planet to the Sun and is only slightly larger than the Moon. From the surface of Mercury, the sun will appear more than three times larger than what is seen from Earth, and the sunlight will be seven times greater. However, Mercury is not the hottest planet in our solar system despite its proximity to the sun, and this title belongs to Venus or Venus thanks to its dense atmosphere.
What is the reason for naming Mercury?
Mercury is the fastest planet in the solar system, orbiting the sun every 88 Earth days. Perhaps this is why the Mercury has been named after the fastest gods of the ancient Romans. The planet was also given two separate names for its appearance, the morning star, and the evening star. However, Greek astronomers knew that these two names referred to a celestial body and that Heraclitus correctly pronounced them around 500 BC. He said that the two planets Mercury and Venus both orbit the sun and have no rotation around the earth. But at that time it was not possible to prove this due to the non-existence and invention of the telescope, and Galileo proved the theory of the earth-centered with the troubles that arose for him.
What is the size and distance of Mercury?
The Mercury with a radius of 2440 km (1516 miles) is slightly more than the width of Earth. If we consider the planet Earth as a coin, Mercury is about the size of a blueberry. At an average distance of 58 million kilometers (36 million miles), Mercury is 0.4 astronomical units away from the Sun. An astronomical unit, which stands for AU, is the distance from the sun to the earth. It takes 3.2 minutes for sunlight to reach Mercury from this star.
What is the orbit and rotation of Mercury?
A very strange and elliptical orbit like Mercury brings it up to 47 million kilometers (29 million miles) close to the Sun and up to 70 million kilometers (43 million miles) away from the Sun. It orbits the Sun once every 88 days, moving at a speed of nearly 47 kilometers (29 miles) per second in space and faster than any other planet. Mercury orbits slowly at its axis, and every 59 Earth days Performs rotation. But when Mercury moves in its elliptical orbit around the Sun at the fastest distance and is closest to the Sun, every rotation, like other planets, is not accompanied by sunrise and sunset. On this planet, the Sun appears to rise for a short time. And sets and rises again in other parts of the planet. The same thing happens in reverse at sunset for other parts of the surface. One solar day on Mercury (a full day-night cycle) equals 176 Earth days and a little over two years on Mercury.
The rotation of the planet Mercury
Mercury’s axis of rotation is only 2 degrees to its orbit around the Sun. This means that the planet rotates almost completely vertically and therefore does not experience different seasons like many other planets.
The structure of Mercury
Mercury is the second densest planet after Earth. The planet has a large metal core with a radius of about 2,074 km (1,289 miles) and is about 85% of the Earth’s radius. There is evidence that the planet’s core is largely molten or liquid. Mercury’s outer crust is comparable to Earth’s outer crust, called the mantle and crust, and is only about 400 kilometers (250 miles) thick.
How did Mercury form?
Mercury formed about 4.5 billion years ago when gas and dust came together due to gravity, forming this small planet close to the sun. Mercury, like other planets on Earth, has a central core, a rocky mantle, and a solid crust.
The formation of the planet Mercury
To learn more about the basics of astronomy and cosmology, you can watch the introductory video tutorial from ancient astronomy to cosmology provided by Faradres, the link to this tutorial is provided below.
What is the surface of Mercury like?
The surface of Mercury is similar to the surface of the Moon because it is covered by many cavities and craters caused by the impact of meteorites and comets. The interesting thing about Mercury’s openings and cavities is that it is named after the late famous artists, musicians, or writers, including the child writer Dr. Seuss or one of the pioneers of rhythmic movements, Alvin Ailey. Large lakes formed by impact, including the Caloris with a diameter of 1550 km or 960 miles and the Rachmaninoff with a diameter of 306 km or 190 miles, due to asteroids hitting the planet’s surface early in history. Solar systems have been created. Also on this planet, while there are large areas of flat land, there are rocks that are hundreds of lengths and up to one and a half kilometers high. These rocks have formed and grown as the planet’s interior has cooled and contracted over billions of years since Mercury. Most of the surface of Mercury in the human eye is grayish brown, and the bright streaks on the planet are called “crater rays” that form when an asteroid or comet hits the planet’s surface. The huge amount of energy released in such an impact digs a large hole in the ground and also crushes a large amount of rock at the point of impact. Some of this crushed material is thrown away from the crater and then falls to the ground, forming the cavity radiation.
The surface of the Mercury
The fine particles of rock reflect more light than large pieces and objects on the planet, so the radiation from the crater appears brighter. The space environment, that is, the effects of dust, sun particles, and wind, darkens the radiation over time. Mercury may have water in its north and south poles and in deep ice holes, but this only applies to areas with permanent shade. This is because the air in these areas may be cold enough to hold water ice despite the high temperatures in different parts of the planet and the sun’s rays.