Spatial interactions – In order for a nucleon to become part of a nucleus, it must lose a fraction of its stationary energy. The nucleon must also receive the bonding energy from an energetic particle to escape the nucleus. High-energy particles that may penetrate nuclei are found in cosmic rays and in many terrestrial accelerators. The energetic landing particles are often protons, alpha particles, or light nuclei, and the target nucleus may be the nucleus of an interstellar atom, a nucleus in the planetary atmosphere, a meteorite, or the surface of the moon, or the nucleus of matter accelerated by a particle accelerator. has taken.
Strong interactions in the Earth’s atmosphere – Spatial interactions
These interactions operate in two ways, as adhesions in stable nuclei (often nitrogen and oxygen nuclei) and as energetic reactions of cosmic rays with stable nuclei. The products of recent reactions (nucleons, hyperons, pions, and kaons) cause more crushing reactions to occur in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Crushing reactions in the lower layers of the atmosphere are called nuclear or nucleon cascades. By spreading to the lower layers, nucleons, mesons, and nuclei are amplified by strong interactions. Electrons, photons, muons, and neutrinos, on the other hand, are involved in weak electromagnetic interactions. In the Earth’s atmosphere, many pions decompose into muons. A fraction of the muons disintegrate while still in the atmosphere, but many of them react with the earth’s surface and penetrate to depths of several hundred meters. The atmosphere takes less than 0.001 seconds to complete. Most of the particles produced travel in the direction of the primary particles and when they reach the surface, they are concentrated in a disk about one meter thick and several meters in diameter (storm core). The energy of the primary generating particle can be determined by measuring a storm on the ground. The highest energy measured by this method is 1020ev per particle.
Strong interactions in the solar system – Spatial interactions
All objects in the solar system are exposed to the bombardment of primary cosmic particles. The interaction of these particles with the surface of meteorites, moons, moons, asteroids, and interplanetary dust induces self-assembly reactions in the atomic nuclei of these cosmic solids. Thus, a series of new nuclei called cosmogenic nuclei remain as traces of the energetic nuclear reactions in solids. Some cosmogenic nuclei are stable and others are radioactive. The amount of cosmogenic nuclei depends on how long they have been exposed to cosmic radiation. This time is known as the “age of radiation”, which is an important parameter in the study and evolution of the solar system, especially meteorites. The meteorite is exposed to cosmic ray bombardment in interstellar space before falling to Earth. The irradiation age of meteorites is much shorter than their specific age, called the “freezing age”. Therefore, the study of meteorites also leads to the study of strong nuclear interactions.
Strong interactions in the planetary atmosphere
In the atmosphere of the star, protons and other nuclei are accelerated by magnetic fields to high energies, enough of which is enough to make the nucleus interact with the atmosphere. For example, in the solar atmosphere, when large solar flares occur, electrons, protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions can be temporarily accelerated and energized up to 1010 e. The increase in energetic particles, which occurs after some solar flares (proton flares), has been recorded by ground-based devices. High-energy particles strongly interact with the nuclei in the solar atmosphere, and this is the first time during solar flares when spectral lines Recorded gamma rays were detected. High-energy transient fluxes occur in other star atmospheres, especially in magnetic star atmospheres. The intensity of the field and the changes in these fluxes are much greater than the changes in the sun. The products of recent reactions in the stellar spectrum are easier to detect and can be quantified. They are created by variable magnetic fields. Therefore, most planetary and stellar phenomena with strong nuclear interactions can be studied.
An appendix to a standard theory of particle physics called Super Symmetry suggests that “heavy particles with poor interaction” (WIMP) may be a major component of cold dark matter. The neutralino is one of the main candidates – (the lightest neutral symmetric particle of the cloud seems to differ in nature from the nature of the atoms around us, and we only know the truth by its gravitational effect. About 20 million years after the Big Bang, The universe was almost homogeneous, but very little change in the equilibrium of the system gave gravity the opportunity to form the large structures that can be seen today. Dark matter created gravitational wells in space, drawing ordinary matter into them. These particles have not yet been discovered, the best place to see neutrino is the galaxy nucleus, which has a very high density of dark matter) – billions of WIMPs can pass through us every second! Sometimes it is possible to interact with the nucleus of an atom and push it back – something like a moving billiard ball and a stationary ball. By principle, but with great difficulty, these interactions can be detected. Some possible ways to detect nuclear retraction due to WIMP interaction are: (1) In semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, an electric charge is released by atom retraction. This ionization is detectable and measurable. (2) In certain types of crystals and liquids, called scintillators, light atoms are emitted as the atom speeds down. This light, the amount of which depends on the retraction energy, can be detected by a photomultiplier lamp (PMT). (3) In the crystal, the retraction energy is transmitted to vibrations called phonons. At room temperature, these vibrations are lost by heat among the induced vibrations. But by cooling the crystals to a temperature close to zero, they can be detected. Although it may pass one million WIMPs per square centimeter per second, it very rarely interacts with a single core. It is estimated that in a 10 kg detector, only one interaction occurs per day on average. The situation is worse when we know that we are always bombarded with cosmic rays. These beams, made of ordinary material, interact easily; Therefore, any WIMP interaction is completely trampled!