Star formation

Star formation

Solar system

Star formation

Star formation – The process of star formation is not something we can observe from beginning to end, because it takes millions of years. But recently, an extraordinary simulation has brought us closer than ever to how this magnificent phenomenon unfolds. The famous “orphanage” is simulated in three dimensions and in high resolution. This simulation can help astronomers to study the process of star formation in more detail. By comparing this simulation with real protostars (stars that are not yet fully formed) at different stages of formation, they can understand the processes involved in star formation. It is very basic in astrophysics. The study of star formation is a very challenging subject due to the extent of the processes involved. “But the new simulation helps us to directly understand the fundamental questions to which we could not previously find definitive answers.”

The basic features of star formation are as follows: First, we begin with a mass of molecular gas commonly found in clouds containing matter. If the density is sufficient, the cloud mass will collapse under its own gravity to form a precursor. The precursor then begins to rotate around itself. This rotation causes the material to rotate around the precursor and form a disk around it. The tablet material then flows into the growing star; Just like water that is constantly discharged by gravitational pull into the well. When the star has gained enough mass, the heat and pressure at the center of the star will rise so high that the fusion reaction of the nucleus begins, during which the hydrogen atoms melt into helium. What is left of the material inside the disk is used to form planets, asteroids, and other such objects. Because the whole process takes place in a dense cloud, it is difficult for us to observe it directly. And because this process takes millions of years to develop, every single prototype we observe is merely a glimpse of an event that is much longer, larger, and more complex. A team of astronomers led by Michael Grodick of Northwestern University created STAR FORGE had to take into account several physical phenomena; Including temperature, gravity, magnetic fields, gas dynamics, and strong stellar winds and plasma eruptions emitted from infant stars known as “stellar feedback.” Texas ran for 100 days. The result was a beautiful video that showed the complete orphanage of stars and the formation of stars from beginning to end. “Scientists have been simulating the process of star formation for decades, but STAR FORGE simulation is a quantum leap in technology,” Grodick said.

Star formation

“Other models could only simulate a small area of ​​a cloud mass where stars form and were unable to simulate the entire cloud at high resolution,” he added. “Without looking at the big picture, many factors were left out that could affect the outcome of star formation.”

The mass of the cloud simulated in the video above is 20,000 times the mass of the Sun, and at the beginning of the simulation, it is suspended only in space. Over time, the gas is compressed by forces such as stellar winds and shock waves from all sides, resulting in the formation of certain higher-density areas in the cloud that can collapse under the force of gravity to form protostars. Simulated with 200,000 times the mass of the sun. As the star forms and grows, strong star winds come out of it. In addition, materials that fall inside the star interact with the star’s magnetic fields; Some of this material is sucked out and flows along the magnetic field lines to the star poles and then thrown into space in the form of powerful plasma eruptions from the star poles. Both feedbacks (stellar winds and eruptions) repel the gases around the star and They cut off the flow of material to the star, thus preventing further growth of the star. Previous research based on observational data has shown that stellar feedback may not play a significant role in determining stellar mass.

What is the largest star?

But the research of this group shows the exact opposite result. When they performed the simulation without eruptions, they ended up with much larger stars. If eruptions are included in the simulation, they eventually produce stars that are more conventional in size. “Eruptions disrupt the flow of gas into the star,” Grodick explained. “Eruptions basically throw gases out of the star that can fall into the star and increase its mass.” “People think that such a phenomenon can happen, but by simulating the whole system, we now have a clear understanding of how this phenomenon occurs.” So this could beautifully illustrate the potential of STARFORGE simulation. Starting from a scenario that is as close as possible to the real universe, astronomers can explore the various physical processes involved in the formation of star orchards. By deleting or adding any of these processes in the simulation, we can understand which of these processes play a key role in the formation of baby stars and may help answer the key questions of our universe. Further details of this study are published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Star formation

How stars are formed
Stars are born inside nebulae called molecular clouds. The nebula is a cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium, and other ionized gases. Nebulae in which stars are born are mostly hydrogen molecules and are called H II regions or star-forming regions. First, the molecular cloud spins due to the gravity of a passing star or a wave caused by a supernova explosion, and as this process continues, masses gradually form. As the mass of the masses increases, so does their temperature. When the temperature inside these stellar bodies reaches 10 million degrees Celsius, nuclear fusion begins. The celestial body mentioned at this stage is a proto-star. When the protostar begins to burn hydrogen and convert it to helium, it is born like a huge furnace of fire, lit or so-called star. At this time, it is called a star. The new star suddenly emits light, which is light. It pushes gas clouds around the star, but little material remains from those clouds, from which a number of planets later form. At this point, the star becomes relatively stable, as the outward pressure from the fusion of the nucleus and the inward pressure from the gravitational force of the star are balanced and offset each other. Therefore, a star does not break down under the force of gravity, nor does it break down due to nuclear fusion. The birth of a star can take millions of years. The birthplace of stars is also called a stellar nursery. The most famous and closest star orchard to Earth is the Orion Nebula (Hunter), which is about 1,500 light-years from Earth.

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