Symptoms of diphtheria and laryngitis
Symptoms of diphtheria and laryngitis What is diphtheria? Treatment of diphtheria, symptoms of diphtheria When the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria enters the human body, a person suffers from an acute bacterial disease that is highly contagious and deadly called diphtheria or diphtheria. Most children and the elderly who become infected with the disease die. The disease is transmitted by direct physical contact or the entry of airborne particles into the respiratory tract, which includes the cause of diphtheria.
Once the bacteria enters the human body, the upper respiratory tract becomes affected and affects the throat, skin, heart, and central Symptoms of diphtheria and laryngitis nervous system.
The incubation period of this disease is 2 to 5 days.
Types of diseases:
Throat diphtheria: It first covers the protruding sides of the throat and then spreads to other parts of the throat so that it may cover the roof of the mouth from the front and the esophagus and larynx from the back, and sometimes completely cover the small tongue in severe cases. And severe diphtheria angina is clearly swollen lymph nodes and anterior tissues of the neck. In general, the toxic effects and complications in pharyngeal and tonsillar diphtheria are much more severe and common than other types of diphtheria.
Laryngeal diphtheria: In this type of diphtheria, the airways are blocked and this type of disease gradually develops and progresses. The patient’s voice and severe coughs such as pertussis cough. Within 24 hours, respiratory disorders progress and it is determined that Insufficient air enters the patient’s lungs and the patient becomes cyanotic. If the airway is not opened using a tracheostomy, the patient will lose consciousness after much effort and will die of suffocation.
Tonsil diphtheria: At the beginning of the disease, it is present only on one of the tonsils and in a small spot that is white to yellowish in color.
Of course, another type of diphtheria Symptoms of diphtheria and laryngitis is skin type that occurs due to poor hygiene. One of the rare types of this disease is ocular diphtheria.
Treatment of diphtheria, symptoms of diphtheria
Common symptoms of the disease:
Sore throat and hoarseness
Enlargement of lymph nodes around the neck
Thick gray membrane on the throat and tonsils
Difficulty breathing and rapid breathing
A hallmark of the disease, which distinguishes it from a viral disease or sore throat, is the formation of a thick gray membrane in the nose, throat, or airways caused by a toxin produced by bacteria.
Today, diphtheria can be prevented by vaccination in addition to treatability. The diphtheria vaccine is often used in combination with the tetanus and pertussis vaccines and is known as the DPT vaccine. Dtap is the latest type of this vaccine. It is recommended to give this vaccine at the beginning of infancy. The injection steps of this vaccine include 5 injection steps in the arm and thigh. It is injected at the age of 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months and 4-6 years.
Diphtheria vaccine is an effective method of prevention. But it has a number of side effects, such as: a mild fever, dizziness, pain at the injection site.
The DPT vaccine rarely causes serious side effects in children, such as an allergic reaction, rash, or shock.
Children with advanced brain Symptoms of diphtheria and laryngitis disorders are not a good choice for the DPT vaccine.
After diagnosing diphtheria in an infected child or adult, a specific antidote is given. This antidote neutralizes toxins in the bloodstream. An antidote may be given intravenously or intramuscularly, but a skin allergy test must be done first to make sure the person is not allergic to the antidote.
Penicillin or erythromycin are some of the antibiotics used to treat diphtheria. Antibiotics reduce the time the disease is contagious to remove some of the thick gray membrane in the throat to prevent respiratory obstruction. Other complications of diphtheria should also be treated. Like inflammation of the heart muscle. In advanced cases of the disease, the person needs respiratory support until complete recovery.
Respiratory problems: Due to the toxin produced by the bacteria, tissue damage occurs in the area of infection, nose and throat, which creates a dirty gray membrane on the mucous membranes of the nose and throat. This membrane causes respiratory obstruction and has dangerous consequences.
Heart damage: Bacterial toxins enter the bloodstream and damage other tissues in the body, including the heart muscle. Inflammation of the heart muscle is one of the injuries. Heart damage is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, chest pain, joint pain, and an abnormal increase in heart rate. Severe cases of heart damage lead to heart failure and sudden death.
Kidney damage: With the entry of diphtheria toxin into the kidneys, the ability to purify the blood in the kidneys decreases.
Nerve damage: Diphtheria toxin damages nerves, especially the nerves in the throat, and makes swallowing difficult. The nerves in the arms and legs may become inflamed. And lead to weakness.
In severe cases, the nerves of the respiratory muscles are damaged and breathing becomes difficult.
Acute laryngitis, or laryngitis, usually presents with hoarseness. People who talk too much are more likely to get the disease (such as teachers)
Following a viral respiratory infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as a cold, the virus inflames the larynx, causing hoarseness, hoarseness, and sometimes coughing.
So the symptoms of laryngitis are as follows:
hoarsness – sometimes aphonia (the patient is unable to produce sound) and is often accompanied by a cough. Coughs are dry and not very severe, but the main manifestation of the disease is hoarseness.
About 30% of colds lead to laryngitis. But its overall prevalence is about 2%. This disease is more common in the cold season of the year and its prevalence is twice as high in winter as in summer. In terms of age, a specific prevalence for this disease can not be considered and it can be said that there is a possibility of infection at all ages.
Duration of the disease:
In most cases, the hoarseness goes away within 3 days, but sometimes it lasts up to 8 days or more. The disease is self-limiting and no specific complication has been reported.
Almost all viruses that cause colds can also cause laryngitis. Parainfluenza virus (21%) and rhinovirus (15%) are the most common. Influenza and adenovirus viruses are the next most common (about 3%). But in flu epidemics, the prevalence Symptoms of diphtheria and laryngitis of laryngitis caused by the flu virus definitely increases (up to 30%).
In terms of bacterial agents can be:
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, Chlamydophilia pneumoniae and group A streptococci. Diphtheria should be considered. Haemophilus influenzae is considered as an etiological agent.
Uncommon causes of laryngitis include the following: Herpes virus, Candida, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and group A streptococcus. These pathogens can sometimes cause laryngitis in people with natural immunity.